EXAMINATION OF BONES
77
the sternum. The length of the forearm measured from the tip of the
olecranon process to the tip of the middle finger is also stated to be equal to
five-nineteenths of the height of the body. The symphysis pubis forms the
exact centre of the body usually from the 20th or 25th year until old age.
From investigations carried out in the Anatomical Departments of the
Medical Colleges of Calcutta, Lucknow, Lahore and Amritsar it is possible
to estimate the stature of an individual within an error of one and a half to
two inches from a long bone by multiplying its maximum length by a multi-
plication factor given in the following table : —
Table showing the multiplication factors for estimating the stature of an
individual of some States of India as determined by different authors
Pan10
Kat16
Long Bones
Hindus of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
Residents of United Provinces (TJttar
Siddiqui and Shah17 Punjabis
Singh and Sohal1* Residents of East Punjab
Pradesh)
Males
Females
Males ! Males
Males
1. Humerus
5.31 5.31
5.3
5.0
4.97
2. Badms
6.78
6.7
69 6.3
6.43
3. Ulna
6.0 6.0
6.3
6.0
5.93
4. Femur
3.82
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.57
5. Tibia
4.49
4.46
4.48
4.2
4.18
6. Fibula
4.46
4.43
4.48
4.4 | 4.35
i
From investigations carried out on fifty adult-male bodies Singh and
Sohal19 have been able to determine the stature of a resident of East Punjab
within an error of 1J" from the clavicle by multiplying its length by 11.1,
its multiplication factor.
The stature of a normal European may be estimated within an error of
one to two centimetres from certain long bones, especially the femur,
humerus, tibia or radius, by using the following formulae compiled by Karl
Pearson 20 : —
I. Formula for calculating the stature in centimetres when the long
bones are in a humid state with the cartilages attached : —
Male.
S = 81.231 + 1.880 X F.
S = 70.714 + 2.894 X H.
S = 78.807 + 2.376 X T.
S = 86.465 + 3.271 X R.
Female.
S = 73.163 + 1-945 X F.
S = 72.046 + 2.754 X H.
S = 75.369 + 2.352 X T.
S = 82.189 + 3.343 X R.
IE. Formula, for calculating the st&ture in centimetres when the long
bone are in a dry state and from which all the soft tissues have
disappeared: —
Male.
S = 81.306 4-1.880 X F.
S= 70.6414- 2.894 X H.
S = 78.664 + 2.376 X T.
S = 89.925 + 3.271 X R.
Female.
S = 72.844 + 1.945 X F.
S = 71.475 + 2.754 X H.
S — 74.774 + 2.352 X T.
S = 81.224 + 3.343 X R.
15. Jour. Anat., Vol. 58, 1924, p. 374.
16. Ind. Jour. Med. Res., Vol. 18, 1931, p. 1245.
17. Ind. Jour. Med. Res., Vol. 32, 1944, p. 105.
18. Ind. Jour. Med. Res* Vol. 40, 1952, p. 67.
19. Ind. Jour. Med. Res., VoL 40, 1952, p. .67.
20. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A., Vol. CXCH, pp. 169-244.